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Kûaravem Ybytu House

Pedro Oscar Pizzetti Mariano, Martín Gabriel Ordenes Mizgier & Gabriela Pinho Mallmann

The name of the house Kûaravem Ybytu refers to the ancient Tupi language that was the basis of the communication of the indigenous Potiguar people, a community originally from the region where the project was conceived. The words have the meaning of Sun and Wind, phenomena that guided the choices of the compositional form that unites the house and part of the bioclimatic solutions. The general design of the proposal has as its main project objective the quality of the internal natural daylight, in addition to reducing the high temperatures during the day and night, decreasing the humidity of the air during the day and night and controlling the wind (enabling its blocking and ticket). These actions are guided by the elaboration of a sun protection element in double curvature (its shape seeks to remember the wind). This element that involves the entire project, in addition to characterizing the shape, also makes it possible to control and select the radiation. In addition to the characteristics of bioclimatic architecture, the house is an invitation for its users to experience and experience the different sensations that the environment can bring, making the user in different paths cross gardens, airy and well ventilated spaces and with different shading effects proposed by architecture.
The project is located in Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. The town is surrounded by buildings of medium height to the west and low height to the east. This provides an area with lower levels of radiation and daylight, and another with constant high levels. The region has very marked climatic characteristics, such as: average annual temperature above 25º (dry bulb temperature) with different periods above 30º, which can cause heat discomfort; overcast 50% of the year with constant levels close to 90%; constant winds above 4m / s during the year, predominantly hot and coming from the Northeast and Southwest; and high relative humidity, on average, above 60% during the year.
The house was initially designed for a family of 6 people (2 young, 2 adults and 2 elderly). Each with different tastes and needs. The rooms that make up the house are: 1 commercial space; 1 kitchen; 1 room; 1 balcony; 1 TV room; 1 office; 5 bedrooms - 2 of which are accessible; garage for 2 cars; bathrooms and toilets.
Different strategies guided the construction of the project, seeking to enhance the daylight through the selection of solar radiation. The strategies were the direction, orientation and correct positioning of the environments on the ground, according to an annual analysis of the incident radiation in the surroundings and on the ground. And the creation of microclimates with the objective of creating light and shadow effects similar to the effects resulting from the main form - dampening heat and controlling the wind. These strategies were developed from an in-depth study of the bioclimatic conditions of the terrain generated by computer simulations and specialized programs in analysis of climatic archives.
The first strategy sought to develop the main volume of the architecture through annual radiation simulations. The areas with low radiation levels were chosen, in order to filter the daylight and block the heat. From this reading, the project took the shape of an "L". Based on this arrangement, the rooms were positioned and directed to neighboring spaces. This arrangement was chosen to and avoid direct incident radiation, causing the openings to receive illumination and not radiation. Thus, in frames that received direct radiation, protections were added, such as: brises, awnings and / or plant barriers. The location of the rooms also allowed them to have two openings to promote natural ventilation, one of which is close to some type of green area (green roof or garden), seeking to bring a shadow effect and decrease the air temperature. The walls and ceilings that have not received any type of damping and are directly facing areas with high levels of radiation were designed as double walls and filled with glass wool (thermal insulator).
Another strategy was the creation of a cover that allows the creation of the shape that gives the house its name and dampens the radiation received. This structure was designed from parametric modeling programs, forming a double curvature structure that is perforated according to the radiation incident on it. In spaces with higher levels of radiation, the subtraction of the area was proportionally less than in spaces with less radiation reception. This compositional game made it possible to filter the daylight and radiation that came into contact with the main volume of the building, and also to create a striking architectural element in the project, creating a signature of light and shadow that provides the project with identity and presents the bioclimatic qualities of the house to the neighborhood. The effect of the shadows also allows a unique visual characteristic at different times of the day and times of the year, making the house have a play of daylight and variable shadow for its occupants, in addition to creating a possible identification of the passage of time and period of the year. year.
With the development of the proposal, the different strategies were tested in simulation programs to verify their operation. In a parametric modeling program, different simulation plug-ins were tested to check daylight and radiation. For the verification of daylight 3 indexes were tested. The UDI - Useful Daylight Illuminance - to check areas below 100 lux in 100% of the time and areas that exceed 3000 lux in 100% of the time, to check for areas that tend to be dark or that can create the discomfort of glare. The DA - Daylight Autonomy- was verified based on the current Brazilian Standard, having to have more than 200 lux in a given area. The simulations are promising, as the project met higher levels within national regulations, in addition to being able to control direct radiation through coverage.

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