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Ottoman Era

© Haya Zakarneh and Amnah Bedeeri

Ottoman Architecture timeline


The Mosque has a main dome, eight secondary domes, and six minarets. The design combines two centuries of Ottoman mosque development. It also contains some Byzantine Christian elements of the neighboring Hagia Sophia with traditional Islamic architecture. The blue mosque was considered the largest and greatest most in the classical era.


One of the five largest mosques in Istanbul has a 37-meter-high main dome with a diameter of 18 meters. The domes are supported on each side by another half-dome. Sinan built four half-domes instead of two, adding more domes to each half-dome. This resulted in a square floor plan, which became narrower from floor to top.


The mosque has a tomb in the courtyard of it. These tombs are belonging to renowned public figures in Ottoman society such as Sultan Ahmed. The mosque was also built following the golden ratio. if you divide the width by the height, the golden ratio yields a value of 1.618. The same ratio you get with the Suleymaniye Mosque.


The mosques have the main structure contains 18 small domes dominated by a huge central dome. Under the main dome, there are eight columns to support it. these columns are placed close to the walls. also, a large square space. Four tall, slender, three-balconied minarets on the structure’s corners contrast with the mass of domes and half-domes.

Ottoman Architecture

Emerged in Bursa and Edirne in 14th and 15th centuries. The architecture of the empire developed from Seljuk architecture and was influenced by the Byzantine, Persian as well as Islamic Mamluk .

Ottomans used geometric designs, rich materials such as colored stone, exotic woods, gold and mother of pearl to make magnificence. Ottoman architects designed homes, palaces, bridges, clock towers, bazaars, arsenals, drydocks and other important civil works, but the great imperial mosques are their most impressive and enduring monuments.

The main distinctive Elements in Islamic and Ottoman architecture:

Distinctive Elements





Mimar Sinan

Sinan is famous for its innovative use of domes by using them gradually from the small domes to the great domes in an impressive scene such as the use of domes in the Selim Mosque in Edirne also in Sulimaniah Mosque 32 windows distributed over the central dome give the dome natural lighting and give an amazing sparkle to the corners of the mosque.

Al-Anbariyah Mosque

Al-Anbariyah Mosque was built in the Ottoman era in Medina, and the same architectural elements were used in the Turkish civilization with the use offree stone material as a basic element in the mosque to make use of Madinah’s materials.

The influence of Ottoman architecture in Prophet Mohammed Mosque:

During the reign of Sultan Abdul Majid I, he started the largest expansion of the mosque in the Ottoman era, and after modern Saudi architecture the tribal (southern) part remained.

The roof of the mosque was completely covered with domes clad with lead panels, the top of which is the green dome, then the dome of the mihrab. Al-Uthmani, then the Babal-Salam dome, and some of them have windows covered with colored glass, and on the wall of the al-Qibli (southern) mosque were written a wall of the Qur’an and the names of the Prophet Muhammad, and other things in the Arabic thuluth script, and the letters were gilded with gold, and its doors were built artistically, and the doors of the southern section that remain until now They are Bab Jibril, Gate of Al-Rahma and Gate of Al-Slam.




We are Haya Zakarneh and Amnah Bedeeri. We are 22 years old, and we are living in Madinah. We took a bachelor's degree in Architectural Engineering major from Prince Mugrin University in Saudi Arabia, Madinah. We are seeking to improve our skills and knowledge in architecture Engineering major by registering in several competitions to Gain experience, show the world the importance of architecture.



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